Glossary

Glossary

A

Acceptance

Acceptance in human psychology is a person's assent to the reality of a situation, recognizing a process or condition without attempting to change it or protest it. In the case of ReVeAL, we are interested in the distribution and aggregated levels of acceptance of an entire population or homogeneous groups within that with regards to specific UVAR policy interventions. Acceptance can be measured and normally changes over time. Acceptance may be affected by specific design characteristics of UVAR policy measures, personal characteristics, and opinions of others.

Access

Access regulation

At the most generic level, access regulation is a 'measures to regulate vehicular access to urban infrastructure'. This definition is taken from the 2013 European Commission Staff Working Document on Access Regulations " A call for smarter urban vehicle access regulations" SWM (2013) 526, which was published to accompany the Urban Mobility Package. Examples of Urban Vehicle Access Regulation areas include Low Emissions Zones, Congestion Charges, Traffic Limited Zones. While it theoretically also includes Parking Regulations, ReVeAL does not include them in its definition. At a more conceptual level, an Urban Vehicle Access Regulation regulates under what conditions certain vehicles are allowed to access certain parts of a city. Such conditions can concern:

  • vehicle weight or size
  • time periods (time of day, day of the week etc.)
  • emission levels (either per vehicle or within a certain area)
  • resident status
  • payment of a certain fee
  • occupancy level
The "R" in UVAR stands for regulation and not for restriction. This is to denote the important quality of a UVAR not to restrict access to vehicles altogether but to specify and regulate the conditions under which vehicles are allowed to access a certain area.

Active mobility

All forms of mobility, where the source of the propelling energy is the human body. Active mobility typically refers to walking and cycling but it should also include non-motorised kick-scooters, skateboards etc.

Adoption gate

The legitimation of the UVAR measure takes place here. In this gate, the final design is approved for implementation. The outcome of this stage is affected by the technical feasibility of the design and/or the political feasibility of implementing the measure.

Area charge

Road User Charge

B

Business-as-usual scenario

A hypothetical scenario which describes what would likely have happened without any specific intervention; in the context of ReVeAL: without the implementation of the pilot project. The business-as-usual scenario serves as a primary point of comparison for a systematic analysis of the proposed pilot project.

C

CAN Data

Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a vehicle data communication protocol for microcontrollers and devices to communicate without a host computer. In a vehicle, this includes exchange of technical sensor data (e.g. speed, steering angle, A/C, ADAS related info). The bus is a non-secured channel but the interpretation of the messages can be manufacturer-specific and are not necessarily open or standardized.

Car club

Car Sharing

Car free zone

At the most basic level, a car free zone is a geographical area where motorised vehicles are not permitted – with the exception of emergency vehicles and, in some cases, delivery vehicles with special permits. In most car free zones, also other motorised vehicles (e.g motorcycles) are prohibited if their maximum speed exceeds a certain velocity; typically 20 km/h.

  • If special permit vehicles with emission free engines are allowed into a car free zone, it is a Zero Emission Zone.
  • If special permit vehicles with internal combustion engines (not considering emergency vehicles) are allowed into a car free zone it is not a Zero Emission Zone.
  • If absolutely no vehicles (except emergency vehicles) are allowed into a car free zone it is not even a UVAR because a UVAR implies that certain vehicles, which meet certain regulations are allowed.

Car pooling

Car Sharing

Car Sharing

A system that gives people access to a (small or large) fleet of cars so that they can use an automobile individually in sequence, i.e. not simultaneously.In essence, Car Sharing is a form of short-term rental, even by the hour, for pre-registered users. This meaning of Car Sharing is widely used in continental Europe – in the UK it is often the expression “car club” that describes this form of sequential sharing. Significantly different is what is typically called Car Pooling (in North America also Ride Sharing) where users share (part of) a journey with others in the same car at the same time. In the UK, this model is often referred to as Car Sharing. There are two types of sharing organisation – station-based and free floating. In short: For ReVeAL-internal communication: Car Sharing = sharing a car in sequence (one user after the other) Car Pooling = sharing (part of) a journey with several users in the same car at the same time.

Case study

An in-depth study of a city and how it introduced specific UVAR measures from ideation to operation. The ReVeAL Transition Framework will be used to describe these processes in each case study.

Change management

An umbrella term for various approaches to a systematic improvement of a system (typically of an organisation) encompassing all phases from preparation, via planning to execution and evaluation. Change management is understood as a comprehensive approach that considers technological, institutional, financial, regulatory, procedural, behavioural and other aspects. The introduction of a UVAR can be considered a change management process and should be introduced systematically and holistically.

Citizen (vs. resident)

In colloquial use, citizen and resident can be use synonymously. However, REVEAL strives to differentiate between them where such a distinction carries substantial meaning. A citizen, in such a precise interpretation, is a person who has the citizenship of a specific country whereas a resident is any person (regardless of citizenship) who resides in a certain area. This can be particularly important in the case of Jerusalem where semantic clarity is required to differentiate between religious, administrative, ethnic, linguistic and other categories of people.

Co-creation

Within the REVEAL context, co-creation can be used interchangeably with co-production. It denotes an approach where “heterogeneous actors collaborate to produce knowledge, instruments, technology, artefacts, policy, know-how, etc.” (ERA-NET Cofund Smart Urban Futures). In an urban change management context such as UVAR, co-production can also be understood as “an alternative service model … which harnesses the strengths of both communities and [municipal] staff.… co-production is about professionals and citizens making better use of each other’s assets, resources and contributions to achieve better outcomes or improved efficiency.” (Governance International; 2016) It is important to emphasise that co-creation / co-production goes beyond participatory planning because it explicitly includes the collaborative implementation and maintenance of new solutions.

Commissioning gate

Final decision needed for the full-scale implementation / operation is made here.

Congestion Charge

Where Road User Charging is implemented, specifically linked to Congestion, it is often called a congestion charge (or tax)

Cordon charge

Road User Charge

D

Decision-making gate

The actual decision on a particular course of action to follow is made here – selection of the UVAR measure.

Description of Action

The Description of Action (DoA) is a key part of the contract between the project consortium and its funder, the European Commission. The DoA is a detailed description of how the project will be carried out and it follows the structure of the proposal, also comprising Parts A & B.

  • Part A contains
    • Project summary
    • List of beneficiaries
    • List of work packages
    • List of deliverables
    • Work package descriptions
    • List of milestones
    • Critical risks and mitigation actions
    • Summary of project efforts in person months
    • Tentative schedule of project reviews
  • Part B is the narrative description of a project, covering the project’s objectives, concept, approach, expected impact etc.

Description of Work

This is the same as the Description of Action

Design phase

Time span by which UVAR measure designs are developed in more details. In this stage, the UVAR measure initial concept is worked out. The four transition areas are tightly joint here altering the technical and strategic design of the UVAR measure. The gate for passing to the UVAR implementation phase is defined by Adoption.

DoA

Description of Action

E

Equality

Equality is a principle of justice, which stipulates that different entities / people should receive equal treatment, equal resources, equal rights etc. In contrast, equity is a principle of justice, which stipulates that different entities / people should receive different benefits to the effect that they have the same changes and opportunities. These different principles are well illustrated in figure 1 Figure1: Equality (left) versus equity (right). Source: https://miro.medium.com/max/484/1*w2Y8CF80LNEmkMMWRc8xlA.png

Equity

Equality

Evaluation

Assessment of the extent to which a measure has performed (or is performing), taking account of earlier predictions made and whether there were unintended/unexpected effects which were not anticipated. An evaluation also draws conclusions on whether the measure continues to be justified or should be modified.

Exemptions for Low-Emission Zones (LEZ)

Exemptions for LEZ aim to ensure that all vehicles meet a certain emission standard, rather than reducing the number of vehicles entering the area per se like a LTZ does. There are a few exemptions for those vehicles that do not meet the standards, but there are good reasons for allowing them access, for example emergency services, rarely used very expensive vehicles.  A complying vehicle wanting to enter the LEZ often has to identify itself as complying with the standards, either by showing a sticker, or being on a database (usually automatically on a national vehicle database plus those actively registered (foreign) vehicles that are not on the national database). These are not seen as permits, but stickers or registrations. (see also Permits for Low-Emission Zones)

Exemptions for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ)

In addition to permits, there are usually exempted vehicles; these are usually vehicles readily identified by their livery / visual characteristics that are needed for the functioning of the town, e.g. emergency vehicles, public transport, postal vehicles etc. (see also Permits for Low-Traffic Zones)

F

Financing

Refers to the way UVAR measures are funded and how the revenue streams are used. Within the ReVeAL context, financial allocation must be linked to transparency. Up front financing of the UVAR scheme investment might be a challenge for UVAR implementers, but there are a number of financing instruments and options which can be considered for this purpose. Understanding how UVAR revenue streams from UVAR (from fines or fee collection) are spent, improves the acceptance. Key topics:

  • Funding of UVAR establishment
  • Management of in-kind contributions of institutional partners
  • Procurement
  • Financing of accompanying measures
  • Management and purpose of revenue streams

Freight & logistics

Vehicular traffic and the surrounding organisation towards delivering goods into an urban area

Future Proofing

If something is future-proof, it will continue to be useful or successful in the future if the situation changes. In this case we are interested in understanding how UVAR policy interventions will deliver their intended outcomes under different future scenarios of how society, technology and the transportation sector more specifically, will change. Based on such considerations, the design of UVAR policy interventions can be adapted to include flexibility or to be ready from the start for future developments, thus future proofing UVAR policy interventions.

G

Geofencing

A geo-fence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area.[1] A geo-fence could be dynamically generated – as in a radius around a point location, or a geo-fence can be a predefined set of boundaries (such as school zones or neighborhood boundaries).

GLOSA

Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA) systems have been shown to be able to reduce both CO2 emissions and fuel consumption by giving drivers speed recommendations when approaching a traffic light. For the system to reach its maximum potential, it is necessary to properly predict all different types of traffic lights, that is, also adaptive traffic lights where signals may change with lead times as short as 1 second.

Governance

Governance is defined by the OECD as “the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority necessary to manage a nation’s affairs” (OECD Glossary of statistical terms). The definition can be broadened for the purpose of ReVeAL and translated at the European and international level and not to be limited at the national level. Questions linked to the concept of governance are: Who has a voice in the decision process? How are the decisions made? And who is being accountable once a decision has been made? (Institute of Governance, Defining Governance). Another key notion to present is the notion of good governance, which can be characterised by “participation, transparency, accountability rule of law, effectiveness, equity etc.” (OECD Glossary of statistical terms). Within the ReVeAL context, good governance implies transparent procedures for project management, procurement, financial management and allocation of revenues at the local level. It many cases, policy and operational coordination between different levels of government affected by the UVAR is needed. At best, effective governance translates into professional project management of the UVAR scheme, with long-term accompanying measures institutionally anchored by means of a specific agency or through the establishment of public-private partnerships. Key topics:

  • Legal frameworks
  • Institutional setting and organisational arrangements
  • Local policy frameworks
  • Political context
  • Integration and interaction of transition areas
  • ‘Policy entrepreneurship’

H

HDV (Heavy duty vehicle)

All vehicles over 3.5 tonnes

HGV (Heavy goods vehicle)

EU term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over 3.5 tonnes. Subcategories are defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. (N2 between 3.5 and 12 tonnes, N3 over 12 tonnes). Commercial carrier vehicles of up to 3,500 kilograms are referred to as light commercial vehicles (LCV) and come into category N1.Source: Heavy goods vehicles". EC, Mobility and Transport, Road Safety, 19 March 2015.

I

Ideation phase

Time span by which problems come to the attention of governments. It is characterized by the identification and the incomplete definition of the problem. This stage only ends when a problem is reconceptualized or redefined in such a way that a range of feasible solutions becomes imaginable. The gate for passing to the UVAR design phase is defined by Decision-making.

Impact

Extent of the tangible and intangible effects (or consequences) of the projects implemented in the pilot cities.

Impact Assessment

Impact assessments collect evidence (including results from evaluations) to assess if a future measure is justified and how such measure can best be designed to achieve desired policy objectives. An impact assessment must identify and describe the problem to be tackled, establish objectives, formulate options, assess the impacts of these options and describe how the expected results will be monitored. It compares the before and after situations and a hypothetical business-as-usual scenario. An impact assessment system follows an integrated approach that assesses the environmental, social and economic impacts of a range of options.

Implementation phase

Involves executing the policy option selected at the decision-making phase. This can involve pilots, demos, referendum, etc. (depending on the local context). The gate for passing to the UVAR operational phase is defined by Commissioning.

Innovation

Innovation is anything new in a specific context – it might be new in an absolute and global sense or “only” ‘imported’ from other contexts. In recent prevailing research and policy discourses, innovation is often used in tight connection with technology and is mainly oriented towards economic efficiency. Parallel to this, the term ‘social innovation’ reached some importance as it became clear that sustainable development cannot be reached by technological innovation alone and must go hand in hand with non-technological (i.e. social, organisational, institutional, legal, etc.) innovation. Due to its communicative and process orientated character, REVEAL aims to bring forward aspects of social innovation (including new forms of governance, participation methods and implementation strategies and evaluation methods) by improving citizen science methods and ‘urban living lab’ experiences.

Intelligent Speed Adaption or Advice

Intelligent speed adaptation(ISA), also known as alerting, and intelligent authority, is any system that ensures that vehicle speed does not exceed a safe or legally enforced speed. In case of potential speeding, a human driver can be alerted, or the speed reduced automatically.

L

LDV (Light duty vehicle)

A vehicle under 3.5T

LEV (Low Emission Vehicle)

Vehicles that have low emissions. There are various definitions used.

LEZ

Low Emission Zone

LEZ (Low Emission Zone)

Area where vehicular access is limited to vehicles that meet certain emissions characteristics.

Limited Traffic Zone (LTZ)

A spatial zone where the traffic volume is low due to the existence of accesses regulating by the Municipality. Also known as Traffic limited zones).

Limiter

Speed limiter

Liveability (= livability, mostly U.S.)

A physical setting like a place, street or an entire city can be considered liveable if it is pleasant for human beings to linger. Liveability takes into consideration all dimensions that affect human beings as a multisensorial and social being, i.e. noise, air quality, temperature, radiation, vibration and perceptions of safety, the ease of desired social interactions etc. The notion of liveability stands in contrast to quality criteria which give precedent to various technical optimisation principles like traffic throughput.

Living Lab

Following Bergvall-Kåreborn et al. (2003: 1)[1] a (Living) Lab is “… a gathering of public-private partnerships in which businesses, researchers, authorities, and citizens work together for the creation, validation, and test of new services, business ideas, markets, and technologies in real-life contexts. The purpose of a Living Lab is to create a shared arena in which digital services, processes, and new ways of working can be developed and tested with user representatives and researchers. Hence, a Living Lab is an environment in which people and technology are gathered and in which the everyday context and user needs stimulate and challenge both research and development, since authorities and citizens take active part in the innovation process.” ‘Labs’ are part of the methodological discussions about ‘open innovation‘, ‘crowdsourcing’ and ‘involving lead users’. Meanwhile, different forms of ‘labs’ are seen as innovative management tools to come up with (mainly social) innovations and is strongly related to the method of ‘citizen science’. [1] Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Ihlström Eriksson, Carina; Ståhlbröst, Anna & Lund, Jesper 2009: A Milieu for Innovation – Defining Living Labs. in The 2nd ISPIM Innovation Symposium - Stimulating Recovery - The Role of Innovation Management. New York.

Low Traffic Zone

Limited Traffic Zone

M

MERT

Acronym of Measure Evaluation Results Template. It is a standard template used for evaluating measures in CIVITAS. See https://civitas.eu/content/measure-evaluation-results-template

Mobility (vs. transport)

Mobility refers to the movement of people, goods, information and data. This recognises pedestrian, bicycle, public transportation and automobile modes. In connection with physical mobility (weekday mobility, weekend mobility, holiday mobility, professional mobility – not migration) it stands for the ability to organise the respective daily life in space. The measurable outcome of mobility is ‘mobility behaviour’, which can be analysed as result of interests, needs, means and coping strategies of individuals/social groups and/or infrastructural aspects and accessibility factors of a region.

Mobility concepts

Refers to innovative mobility schemes, services or business models focused on the use of new technologies, vehicles and transport infrastructures also in combination with existing elements (e.g. active mobility, public transport or UVAR measures) in order to accelerate, maximise or introduce significant changes in mobility patterns and landscapes or significantly mitigate negative impacts. Mobility concepts can be considered “disruptive” when the level of change or impact is particularly relevant in size (i.e. on mobility demand) or in time (fast change). Examples of mobility concepts are MaaS, superblocks, automated shuttles, ridehailing platforms, application of C-ITS, dockless shared scooters, cycle logistics schemes, etc.

Mobility lab

Mobility lab is a Lab which concentrates on impacting the existing mobility behaviour of people/social groups (and the contextual reasons for it) in a particular way. Due to the tremendous need to reduce the negative effects of traffic, REVEAL aims to support sustainable forms of mobility: lesser use of private cars in favour of public transport and/or active forms of mobility (walking, cycling). The aim is to facilitate and promote the use of different mobility modes either in general (multi-modality) or within one trip (inter-modality).

Mobility services stream

Maps the evolution of the different mobility services before and after the implementation of UVAR measure and their impacts on the UVAR life cycle.

Monitoring

Supervising and measuring activities in progress in pilot cities to ensure they are on-course and on-schedule in meeting the objectives.

O

Operational phase

Here all the activities following the launch of the UVAR measure take place. This may include the monitoring and evaluation of the measure, the coupling with new UVAR measures, feedback collection and design fine-tuning, etc.

P

Participation

Participation is an umbrella term for various forms of interaction between the public hand (city officials, public authorities etc.) and citizens, local stakeholders etc. Different forms of participation vary primarily in the degree of power that citizens are granted. Sherry Arnstein famously articulated these differences in her 1969 “ladder of participation” – see figure 2. Figure2: Arnstein's "ladder of participation". Source:https://tinyurl.com/y3kchchk

Pedestrian zone

Spatial area where only pedestrians are permitted. Strictly speaking, not even delivery vehicles or public transport vehicles are allowed in a pedestrian zone. In such a strict definition, the terms pedestrian zone and “pedestrian-only” zone are synonymous. In many cases, however, exceptions are granted for delivery vehicles during certain time windows and/or for public transport vehicles. If such vehicles meet zero emission standards the pedestrian zone would automatically also be a ZEZ. In contrast see Pedestrian-transit zone (sometimes called “transit malls” in the U.S.)

Pedestrian-transit zone

Spatial area where only pedestrians and public transport vehicles are allowed. Sometimes called “transit malls” in the U.S.

Permeability

Permeability is the number of alternative routes from one point to another and, therefore, having ease of access and connectivity to a surrounding environment. Filtered permeability of an area differentiates between road user categories. “Filtered permeability is the principle followed in European towns and cities most successful in restraining car use. It means separating the sustainable modes from private motor traffic in order to give them an advantage in terms of speed, distance and convenience. There are many ways in which this can be done: separate cycle and walk ways, bus lanes, bus gates, bridges or tunnels solely for sustainable modes.” See: https://www.tcpa.org.uk/eco-towns-advice-worksheets Sometimes also differentiated permeability is organized for distinguished car users, e.g. resident vs. non-resident, HGV vs. LCV and passenger cars. Within ReVeAL we consider filtered permeability obtained by means of UVAR.

Permits for Low-Emission Zones (LEZ)

A complying vehicle wanting to enter the LEZ often has to identify itself as complying with the standards, either by showing a sticker, or being on a database (usually automatically on a national vehicle database plus those actively registered (foreign) vehicles that are not on the national database). These are not seen as permits, but stickers or registrations. (see also Exemptions for Low-Emission Zones)

Permits for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ)

Permits for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ) aim to reduce / limit traffic, rather than to change the emissions standard of the vehicles used in the area like an LEZ does. Certain categories of vehicles or trips, for example those living in the area, are permitted to enter. They are given a permit to prove their eligibility. In addition to permits, there are usually exempted vehicles; these are usually vehicles readily identified by their livery / visual characteristics that are needed for the functioning of the town, e.g. emergency vehicles, public transport, postal vehicles etc. (see also Exemptions for Low-Traffic Zones)

Person month

One person month is a certain amount of financial resources which makes it possible to finance one person’s full time work for one month. Due to different salary rates in different organisations, the € value of a person month can vary between organisations.

Pilot area

The area of a city where specific measures will be implemented and are expected to generate direct impacts (on transport activities, society, economy, environment, etc.)

PM

Person month

PO

Project officer

Policy stream

Maps the conceptual evolution of the alternatives or solutions that may or may not be considered or used by decision makers. Getting the policy community receptive to a new idea takes a long period of softening up. It is the job of policy entrepreneurs to push for their ideas. They aim to soften up the general public, more specialized publics, and the policy community itself.

Political stream

Refers to the will of the different political actors to place an item on the agenda. Elections or the (perceived) national mood can contribute to putting an item on the agenda. Once the item is on the agenda, this stream deals with the coalitions formed during the decision-making stages and the set of governmental steps followed to facilitate the development of the UVAR measure (strategic decision-making).

Pricing Measures

A pricing measure is a policy tool to differentiate road users on the basis of their individual demand for use of the road space. The adoption of a pricing measure, like for example a parking pricing scheme or a congestion charge, allows to approach an “economically optimal” parking occupation or traffic congestion level. From a users’ viewpoint, a pricing measure would provide the opportunity to avoid the high cost of recurrent delays and unreliable parking and travel conditions, by paying with money instead of time. Pricing measures tend to have a significant impact on modal shift.

Problem stream

Marked by indicators, events, and feedback (on existing programmes) bringing problems to attention. This stream maps the emergence of problems and the reframing and definition of the problems by different user groups. ReVeAL’s Transition Area “User needs & Acceptance” focusses on this stream.

Process Evaluation

The process evaluation focuses on the means, mechanisms, procedures and socio-political dynamics through which a measure is implemented. It begins during project development and continues throughout the life of the project. Its intent is to assess all project activities, negative and positive factors which are influencing the measure implementation process and thus provide information to monitor and improve the project. It is important to develop a process evaluation of the impacts flowing from the implementation and application of the measure in order to allow local institutions to undertake a meaningful evaluation of the intervention at a future point in time.

Project Evaluation Manager (PEM)

This role is taken on by TRT and refers to the overall coordination of evaluation activities within ReVeAL (WP4)

Project Management Group (PMG)

ReVeAL’s main body for internal communication and decision making for all issues of medium relevance, which do not need a formal decision of the General Assembly. The PMG is chaired by the project coordinator (Bielefeld) and consists of all WP leaders and all Neighbourhood Coordinators. It is the main body for monitoring project progress and the use of resources, for all short-term decisions related to the organisational and technical management of the project. The PMG will hold regular online meetings, ca. every six weeks, which are open to all other consortium members as well. If needed, its members will also meet physically, if possible in conjunction with other project activities.

Project officer

The project officer (PO) is a person working at INEA (Innovation and Networks Executive Agency) in Brussels, who is the main point of contact between the project consortium and the project funder. The funder of ReVeAL is the European Commission (EC). The EC delegates most managerial and controlling functions to various agencies. INEA is the agency in charge of most transport related projects within Horizon 2020. The current PO (as of Sept. 2019) is Andrea Arcelli.

R

Regulation

Access regulation

Resident (vs. citizen)

Citizen

Restriction

Regulation

Retrofit

Retrofitting is the addition of new technology or features to older systems in order to improve efficiency, add more functionalities or be compatible with the latest environmental demands (e.g. diesel retrofit).

Ride Sharing

Car Sharing

Road user charge

Depending on the underlying political objective, different types of charges road users need to pay are typically differentiated:

  • Tolls: charges used to finance the construction and maintenance of the infrastructure the vehicle is using.
  • Road user charge: charges used to finance the construction and maintenance of infrastructure in a region/nation. Often discussed as a kilometre charge (Europe) or mileage based user fee (MBUF) in the US.
  • Congestion charge: charges users to internalise the external costs of (car) traffic.
  • Cordon charge: special case of congestion charge where the charges are levied in a closer ring around an area and vehicles are charged per passage
Area charge: special case of a congestion charge where the charges are levied for vehicle being inside a predefined area for a predefined time (like a charge per day).

S

Sandboxing

This term stems from the discourse in computer science, in particular computer security. There, a "sandbox" is a security mechanism for separating running programmes, usually in an effort to mitigate system failures or software vulnerabilities from spreading. It is often used to execute untested or untrusted programs or code, possibly from unverified or untrusted third parties, suppliers, users or websites, without risking harm to the host machine or operating system. In ReVeAL, the term sandbox relates to creating an environment in which untested and untrusted technologies, processes, algorithms (primarily for supporting dynamic curbside management) can be tested without affecting citizens or traffic directly.

Scenario

A scenario is a high level plan, which starts from the current city context defined by the existing mobility networks and services, population, city functions, spatial layout, political support, public opinion, plans etc. A scenario captures one instantiation of what would be possible. It builds on the UVAR state of art and the expertise of the REVEAL partners to translate this to a specific city context. The Scenario is not a detailed traffic or other modelling/simulation.

Smart

No universally accepted definition exists of the adjective “smart” as in smart city or smart mobility. Its mainstream interpretation revolves around the real-time exchange of digital data about the status of various parameters. This is expected to achieve a better “match” between the supply and demand side (e.g. of electricity, heat, mobility services etc.) in a way that triggers efficiency gains and reduces idle spare capacities. Whereas this interpretation tends to rely primarily on technical measures – without, for example, questioning the perception of mobility needs – the adjective “wise” is sometimes used to highlight the importance of a systematic reflection about the necessity of travel, trip qualities etc.

Spatial Interventions

Spatial interventions are physical designs or measures that interact with public space and transport flows in order to improve safety and/or quality of living in certain zones or streets in a city. Interventions can be at the micro-scale (e.g. traffic calming measures) up to meso and macro-scale (e.g. superblocks) and can be individual measures or a combined set of measures like in the example of superblocks.

Speed Limiter

Aspeed limiter is a governor used to limit the top speed of a vehicle. For some classes of vehicle and in some jurisdictions, they are a statutory requirement, for some other vehicles the manufacturer provides a non-statutory system which may be fixed or programmable by the driver.

Stakeholder

In its most literal sense, a stakeholder holds a legitimate “stake” in a certain issue and therefore has a vested interest in specific topic, proposal, property etc.

Superblock

The superblock is a model of mobility that restructures the typical urban road network. Superblocks have the potential ot provide solutions to the main problems of urban mobility and to improve both the availability and quality of the public space for pedestrians and people sojourning in a space. In order to achieve this, two fundamental changes must be made: modification to the basic road network and the establishment of differentiated routes for each mode of transport. The superblock is composed of a set of basic roads forming a polygon that contains within it several blocks of the current urban fabric. This new urban cell has both an interior and exterior component. The interior is closed to through vehicles and open to residents, primarily. The exterior forms the basic road network on the periphery and is typically 400 metres wide for use by motorized vehicles.

Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP)

A planning concept applied by local and regional authorities for strategic and comprehensive mobility planning that promotes participatory approaches to planning at the city (sometimes regional) scale. SUMP encourages a shift towards more sustainable transport modes and supports the integration and balanced development of all modes. An SUMP is instrumental in tackling urban transport problems and reaching local and higher-level environmental, social, and economic objectives. The SUMP concept is officially endorsed by the European Commission as recommended planning practice.

System design

As part of the Transition Framework Technology Stream”, system design deals with the architecture and interfaces of technological systems that support UVAR operations (e.g. reinforcement, traffic monitoring, ITS, ticketing, communication).

T

Technology stream

Marked by design and implementation of urban technology related to UVAR in a governmental as well as commercial context: ITS, open data, navigation, reinforcement, automotive technology, MaaS, TM2.0, social media information channels, crowd sourcing. This stream maps the availability of technology and how it influences the UVAR life cycle.

Toll

Road User Charge

Traffic calming

Traffic calmed roads are those roads where physical or psychological measures (e.g. narrowed roads, speed humps, road surface painting, etc.) and/or a relatively low speed limit (for example, 30 km/h or less) are put in place to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists, especially in residential areas.

Transformation

Transition

Transition

The implementation of UVAR measure(s) in a city is regarded as type of change that affects multiple fields of action, stakeholders, departments etc. at the same time. It is a systemic transition and therefore needs to be managed well in order to reach a sustainable implementation and operation. In ReVeAL, transitions are described over four transition areas: Governance & Financing, User Needs & Acceptance, Mobility Services and System Design/Technology. The maturity level of the implementation is defined by the UVAR phase; the transition from one phase to the other is governed by the UVAR gate conditions.

Transition Area

Transition

U

Ultra LEZ

A terminology specifically used in London for their Euro 6/VI diesel, Euro 4/IV petrol Low Emission Zone. It could also have other definitions.

Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV)

Various definitions of ULEV are in use. Typically,ULEVs are also known as plug-in vehicles and emit extremely low levels of motor vehicle emissions compared to other vehicles. Pure electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), range-extended electric vehicles (E-REVs), and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are all ULEVs (UK EST). One definition refers to vehicles emitting less than 75g CO2/km from the tailpipe, another one requires ULEVs to emit zero emisison for at least 10 miles.

Urban Vehicle Access Regulation (UVAR)

Access regulation

User needs

User needs are requirements that add value to a product, service or environment for a user. Capturing user needs is a process of engaging user to understand their problems, processes, goals, and preferences. Within ReVeAL, the term user needs relates to the different transportation needs of users as well as needs of how users can interact with components of the transportation system. Directly related to UVAR interventions user needs reflect is UVAR measures improve the available options to meet transportation needs AND how the design of UVAR interventions meet user needs. The latter is somewhat similar to user experience design (UX design) in the software world, but then related to policy design.

UVAR

Current accepted EU acronym for Urban Vehicle Access Regulation

UVAR phase

A well-defined time span within the lifecycle of an UVAR implementation in a city. With ReVeAL, we differentiate between four UVAR phases: Ideation, design, implementation and operation. Each time span is defined by processes that can be active in this period and gates that mark specific events or decisions that need to be passed in order to evolve from one phase to the next.

UVAR stream

The stream analogy in the UVAR context refers to the continuous of events and activities that describe and contribute to the evolutive process of the UVAR measure.

Z

Zero emission Vehicle (ZEV)

A vehicle where no emissions are emitted at the point of use. It should be noted that life cycle or cradle to grave emissions may not be zero. In fact, even ZEVs cause emissions during production, disposal or for the “off-site” production of electricity or hydrogen.

Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ)

An area where only vehicles emitting zero emissions at the point of use are permitted. This could include pedestrians, cyclists, EVs, geofenced partial PHEV / Re-EV etc.