Participation is an umbrella term for various forms of interaction between the public hand (city officials, public authorities etc.) and citizens, local stakeholders etc. Different forms of participation vary primarily in the degree of power that citizens are granted. Sherry Arnstein famously articulated these differences in her 1969 “ladder of participation” – see figure 2.
Figure2: Arnstein's "ladder of participation". Source:https://tinyurl.com/y3kchchk
Spatial area where only pedestrians are permitted. Strictly speaking, not even delivery vehicles or public transport vehicles are allowed in a pedestrian zone. In such a strict definition, the terms pedestrian zone and “pedestrian-only” zone are synonymous.
In many cases, however, exceptions are granted for delivery vehicles during certain time windows and/or for public transport vehicles. If such vehicles meet zero emission standards the pedestrian zone would automatically also be a ZEZ.
In contrast see Pedestrian-transit zone
(sometimes called “transit malls” in the U.S.)
Spatial area where only pedestrians and public transport vehicles are allowed. Sometimes called “transit malls” in the U.S.
Permeability is the number of alternative routes from one point to another and, therefore, having ease of access and connectivity to a surrounding environment. Filtered permeability of an area differentiates between road user categories.
“Filtered permeability is the principle followed in European towns and cities most successful in restraining car use. It means separating the sustainable modes from private motor traffic in order to give them an advantage in terms of speed, distance and convenience. There are many ways in which this can be done: separate cycle and walk ways, bus lanes, bus gates, bridges or tunnels solely for sustainable modes.” See: https://www.tcpa.org.uk/eco-towns-advice-worksheets
Sometimes also differentiated permeability is organized for distinguished car users, e.g. resident vs. non-resident, HGV vs. LCV and passenger cars. Within ReVeAL we consider filtered permeability obtained by means of UVAR.
Permits for Low-Emission Zones (LEZ)
A complying vehicle wanting to enter the LEZ often has to identify itself as complying with the standards, either by showing a sticker, or being on a database (usually automatically on a national vehicle database plus those actively registered (foreign) vehicles that are not on the national database). These are not seen as permits, but stickers or registrations. (see also Exemptions for Low-Emission Zones)
Permits for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ)
Permits for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ) aim to reduce / limit traffic, rather than to change the emissions standard of the vehicles used in the area like an LEZ does. Certain categories of vehicles or trips, for example those living in the area, are permitted to enter. They are given a permit to prove their eligibility. In addition to permits, there are usually exempted vehicles; these are usually vehicles readily identified by their livery / visual characteristics that are needed for the functioning of the town, e.g. emergency vehicles, public transport, postal vehicles etc. (see also Exemptions for Low-Traffic Zones)
The area of a city where specific measures will be implemented and are expected to generate direct impacts (on transport activities, society, economy, environment, etc.)
Maps the conceptual evolution of the alternatives or solutions that may or may not be considered or used by decision makers. Getting the policy community receptive to a new idea takes a long period of softening up. It is the job of policy entrepreneurs to push for their ideas. They aim to soften up the general public, more specialized publics, and the policy community itself.
Refers to the will of the different political actors to place an item on the agenda. Elections or the (perceived) national mood can contribute to putting an item on the agenda. Once the item is on the agenda, this stream deals with the coalitions formed during the decision-making stages and the set of governmental steps followed to facilitate the development of the UVAR measure (strategic decision-making).
These are measures that require people to pay for vehicle access to a given area. Pricing can apply to all vehicles in an area (e.g., a congestion charge) or certain categories of vehicles (e.g., a charge based on emissions standards or on vehicle size) and can also include parked vehicles (various forms of parking charges). Charging can be flat rate or differential.
Marked by indicators, events, and feedback (on existing programmes) bringing problems to attention. This stream maps the emergence of problems and the reframing and definition of the problems by different user groups. ReVeAL’s Transition Area “User needs & Acceptance” focusses on this stream.
The process evaluation focuses on the means, mechanisms, procedures and socio-political dynamics through which a measure is implemented. It begins during project development and continues throughout the life of the project. Its intent is to assess all project activities, negative and positive factors which are influencing the measure implementation process and thus provide information to monitor and improve the project.
It is important to develop a process evaluation of the impacts flowing from the implementation and application of the measure in order to allow local institutions to undertake a meaningful evaluation of the intervention at a future point in time.