Participation is an umbrella term for various forms of interaction between the public hand (city officials, public authorities etc.) and citizens, local stakeholders etc. Different forms of participation vary primarily in the degree of power that citizens are granted. Sherry Arnstein famously articulated these differences in her 1969 “ladder of participation” – see figure 2.
Figure2: Arnstein's "ladder of participation". Source:https://tinyurl.com/y3kchchk
Spatial area where only pedestrians are permitted. Strictly speaking, not even delivery vehicles or public transport vehicles are allowed in a pedestrian zone. In such a strict definition, the terms pedestrian zone and “pedestrian-only” zone are synonymous.
In many cases, however, exceptions are granted for delivery vehicles during certain time windows and/or for public transport vehicles. If such vehicles meet zero emission standards the pedestrian zone would automatically also be a ZEZ.
In contrast see Pedestrian-transit zone
(sometimes called “transit malls” in the U.S.)
Spatial area where only pedestrians and public transport vehicles are allowed. Sometimes called “transit malls” in the U.S.
Permeability is the number of alternative routes from one point to another and, therefore, having ease of access and connectivity to a surrounding environment. Filtered permeability of an area differentiates between road user categories.
“Filtered permeability is the principle followed in European towns and cities most successful in restraining car use. It means separating the sustainable modes from private motor traffic in order to give them an advantage in terms of speed, distance and convenience. There are many ways in which this can be done: separate cycle and walk ways, bus lanes, bus gates, bridges or tunnels solely for sustainable modes.” See: https://www.tcpa.org.uk/eco-towns-advice-worksheets
Sometimes also differentiated permeability is organized for distinguished car users, e.g. resident vs. non-resident, HGV vs. LCV and passenger cars. Within ReVeAL we consider filtered permeability obtained by means of UVAR.
Permits for Low-Emission Zones (LEZ)
A complying vehicle wanting to enter the LEZ often has to identify itself as complying with the standards, either by showing a sticker, or being on a database (usually automatically on a national vehicle database plus those actively registered (foreign) vehicles that are not on the national database). These are not seen as permits, but stickers or registrations. (see also Exemptions for Low-Emission Zones)
Permits for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ)
Permits for Low-Traffic Zones (LTZ) aim to reduce / limit traffic, rather than to change the emissions standard of the vehicles used in the area like an LEZ does. Certain categories of vehicles or trips, for example those living in the area, are permitted to enter. They are given a permit to prove their eligibility. In addition to permits, there are usually exempted vehicles; these are usually vehicles readily identified by their livery / visual characteristics that are needed for the functioning of the town, e.g. emergency vehicles, public transport, postal vehicles etc. (see also Exemptions for Low-Traffic Zones)
One person month is a certain amount of financial resources which makes it possible to finance one person’s full time work for one month. Due to different salary rates in different organisations, the € value of a person month can vary between organisations.
The area of a city where specific measures will be implemented and are expected to generate direct impacts (on transport activities, society, economy, environment, etc.)
Maps the conceptual evolution of the alternatives or solutions that may or may not be considered or used by decision makers. Getting the policy community receptive to a new idea takes a long period of softening up. It is the job of policy entrepreneurs to push for their ideas. They aim to soften up the general public, more specialized publics, and the policy community itself.
Refers to the will of the different political actors to place an item on the agenda. Elections or the (perceived) national mood can contribute to putting an item on the agenda. Once the item is on the agenda, this stream deals with the coalitions formed during the decision-making stages and the set of governmental steps followed to facilitate the development of the UVAR measure (strategic decision-making).
A pricing measure is a policy tool to differentiate road users on the basis of their individual demand for use of the road space. The adoption of a pricing measure, like for example a parking pricing scheme or a congestion charge, allows to approach an “economically optimal” parking occupation or traffic congestion level. From a users’ viewpoint, a pricing measure would provide the opportunity to avoid the high cost of recurrent delays and unreliable parking and travel conditions, by paying with money instead of time. Pricing measures tend to have a significant impact on modal shift.
Marked by indicators, events, and feedback (on existing programmes) bringing problems to attention. This stream maps the emergence of problems and the reframing and definition of the problems by different user groups. ReVeAL’s Transition Area “User needs & Acceptance” focusses on this stream.
The process evaluation focuses on the means, mechanisms, procedures and socio-political dynamics through which a measure is implemented. It begins during project development and continues throughout the life of the project. Its intent is to assess all project activities, negative and positive factors which are influencing the measure implementation process and thus provide information to monitor and improve the project.
It is important to develop a process evaluation of the impacts flowing from the implementation and application of the measure in order to allow local institutions to undertake a meaningful evaluation of the intervention at a future point in time.
Project Evaluation Manager (PEM)
This role is taken on by TRT and refers to the overall coordination of evaluation activities within ReVeAL (WP4)
Project Management Group (PMG)
ReVeAL’s main body for internal communication and decision making for all issues of medium relevance, which do not need a formal decision of the General Assembly. The PMG is chaired by the project coordinator (Bielefeld) and consists of all WP leaders and all Neighbourhood Coordinators. It is the main body for monitoring project progress and the use of resources, for all short-term decisions related to the organisational and technical management of the project. The PMG will hold regular online meetings, ca. every six weeks, which are open to all other consortium members as well. If needed, its members will also meet physically, if possible in conjunction with other project activities.
The project officer (PO) is a person working at INEA (Innovation and Networks Executive Agency) in Brussels, who is the main point of contact between the project consortium and the project funder. The funder of ReVeAL is the European Commission (EC). The EC delegates most managerial and controlling functions to various agencies. INEA is the agency in charge of most transport related projects within Horizon 2020. The current PO (as of Sept. 2019) is Andrea Arcelli.