Within the REVEAL context, co-creation can be used interchangeably with co-production. It denotes an approach where “heterogeneous actors collaborate to produce knowledge, instruments, technology, artefacts, policy, know-how, etc.” (ERA-NET Cofund Smart Urban Futures).
In an urban change management context such as UVAR, co-production can also be understood as “an alternative service model … which harnesses the strengths of both communities and [municipal] staff.… co-production is about professionals and citizens making better use of each other’s assets, resources and contributions to achieve better outcomes or improved efficiency.” (Governance International; 2016)
It is important to emphasise that co-creation / co-production goes beyond participatory planning because it explicitly includes the collaborative implementation and maintenance of new solutions.