A Zero-emission Zone (ZEZ) is an area where only vehicles emitting zero emissions are permitted. This might be by removing vehicles, or by removing the emitting engine from the vehicle and allowing only zero-emission vehicles entry – alternatively, it could be a combination of both.
This measure field also covers Low-emission Zones and Traffic Limited Zones, which can work towards similar goals with similar tools, and sometimes as a phasing.
The different building blocks in this measure field are the aspects that can be added together to get a full UVAR scheme. These are:
- Regulations by emissions (Brussels, Belgium)
- Regulations by vehicle type and dimension – vehicle type (Paris, France)
- Regulations by vehicle type and dimension – HDV/LDV (Utrecht, The Netherlands)
- Regulations by trip purpose – delivery (Strasbourg, France)
- Scheme timescale – night-time regulations (Stockholm, Sweden)
- Scheme timescale – time window (Madrid, Spain)
- Regulations by permit – permit to travel (Siena, Italy)
- Regulations by permit – permit (planning) (London, UK)
La Rochelle regulates deliveries with a time window to ensure pedestrian areas can receive deliveries. In similar cases, additional requirements can be added to make it increasingly difficult for non-EV/non-sustainable vehicles to access the UVAR zone.
Bologna allows access to its LTZ through the purchase of three permits and limited exemptions. In addition, emissions standards have been applied and have been strengthened over time towards a ZEZ and a reduction of residents permits.
Amsterdam has had a camera-enforced LEZ for lorries since 2008. As of now, it is working on a phased tightening to a ZEZ by 2030.